Sunday, December 8, 2019

Freud Essay Example For Students

Freud Essay Psychoanalysis is a system of psychology originated by the Viennese physician Sigmund Freud in the 1890s and then further developed by himself, his students, and other followers. It consists of activities such as using methods for research into the human mind, a systematic knowledge about the mind, and a method for the treatment of psychological or emotional disorders. Psychoanalysis began with the discovery of hysteria, an illness with physical symptoms that occurred in a completely healthy physical body, such as a numbness or paralysis of a limb, loss of voice, or blindness. This state could be caused by unconscious wishes or forgotten memories. Many women of the 1800s were diagnosed with hysteria, given the disorder was thought to be primarily female. Freud began telling his patients, through interpretations, what was going on inside the unconscious part of their minds, thus helping the unconscious become conscious. Many cases of hysteria were cured this way, and in 1895, Freud, a long with another fellow physician, published their findings and theories on the study of hysteria. In The White Hotel by D. M. Thomas, the character Lisa does not exhibit the above form of hysteria, but rather a manifestation of reality. Her own reality has become too imprisoned, and she escapes it by creating another Lisa that is nothing like her person. The traditional psychoanalytical theory states that all human beings are born with instinctual drives that are constantly active even though a person is not usually conscious of them. Two drives, one for sexual pleasure and the other called aggression, motivate and propel most behaviors in people. Lisa creates a very intense sexual drive for her fictive person. Readers may speculate that this creation may have been brought about by experiences beginning at birth. In the infant, the libido supposedly first manifests itself by making the act of sucking the thumb an activity with pleasurable sensations in the mouth. Later, according to Freud, similar pleasures are experienced in the anus during bowel movements, and finally these erotically tinged pleasures are experienced when the sexual organ is manipulated. Thus psychosexual development progresses from the oral through the anal to the phallic stage. During the height of the phallic phase (about ages three to six), Freud notes that the se drives focus on the parent of the opposite sex such as in the relations between mother and son or between father and daughter. These drives are known as the so-called Oedipus and Electra complexes. These complexes may also spread to other relationships, such as Lisas viewing of the love affair between her mother and uncle. However, most societies strongly disapprove of the sexual interests of children, and Lisa never spoke of what she saw to anyone but Freud. She also, in the event of her mothers death, fell subject to a withdrawn father who did not meet her needs for affection and attention as a growing child. This may have helped lead to her repressed sexual rage. Also, taboo on incest rules almost universally. Parents, therefore, influence children to push pleasurable sensations and thoughts out of their conscious minds into the unconscious by a process called repression. Repression is what Lisa learned most about in her childhood. In this way the mind comes to consist of thre e parts known as the ego, id, and superego. The ego is mostly conscious and comprises all the ordinary thoughts and functions needed to direct a person in his or her daily behavior. The id is mainly unconscious and contains the instincts and everything that was repressed into it. And finally, the superego is the conscious state that harbors the values, ideals, and prohibitions that set the guidelines for the ego, and punishes the person through feeling of guilt. .uc0e5314a47eee3622a4ffdcd4075682e , .uc0e5314a47eee3622a4ffdcd4075682e .postImageUrl , .uc0e5314a47eee3622a4ffdcd4075682e .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uc0e5314a47eee3622a4ffdcd4075682e , .uc0e5314a47eee3622a4ffdcd4075682e:hover , .uc0e5314a47eee3622a4ffdcd4075682e:visited , .uc0e5314a47eee3622a4ffdcd4075682e:active { border:0!important; } .uc0e5314a47eee3622a4ffdcd4075682e .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uc0e5314a47eee3622a4ffdcd4075682e { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uc0e5314a47eee3622a4ffdcd4075682e:active , .uc0e5314a47eee3622a4ffdcd4075682e:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uc0e5314a47eee3622a4ffdcd4075682e .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uc0e5314a47eee3622a4ffdcd4075682e .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uc0e5314a47eee3622a4ffdcd4075682e .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uc0e5314a47eee3622a4ffdcd4075682e .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uc0e5314a47eee3622a4ffdcd4075682e:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uc0e5314a47eee3622a4ffdcd4075682e .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uc0e5314a47eee3622a4ffdcd4075682e .uc0e5314a47eee3622a4ffdcd4075682e-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uc0e5314a47eee3622a4ffdcd4075682e:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: College Uneducation by Jorge Bocobo EssayStrong boundaries between the three parts keep the ego fairly free from disturbing thoughts and wishes in the id, ensuring effective functioning and socially acceptable behavior. During sleep the boundaries weaken, and disturbing wishes may slip into the ego from the id. This often causes us to manifest in our dreams. Freud interpreted this concept in his first major work, The Interpretation of Dreams. Something very similar to the weakening of boundaries during sleep may happen during ordinary daytime activities when some impulses from the id manage to cross the repression barrier and cause faulty actions such as slips of the tongu e. This may occur often if psychologically hurtful experiences during childhood have left the repression too weak, distorted the ego, or strengthened the id too much by over-stimulation. Any kind of psychic trauma may lead to the ego becoming an area of conflict between the intruding id, the threatening superego, and the powerful influences emanating from the surrounding environment. Furthermore, the damage done to the basic psychological structures by traumatic experiences leaves those structures weakened and with defective functioning. Such outcomes can cause intense anxiety and depression. In order to keep functioning effectively, the ego attempts to maintain control by achieving some sort of compromise between the contending forces. Lisa could not separate her self from her problems, and therefor fell victim to them. Her life was not focused, but she managed to create clarity in the release of her sexual self. Patients seek psychoanalytic treatment because they suffer from one or more psychological symptoms such as anxiety, depression, sexual inhibitions or manifestations (such as with Lisas conflict), obsessive thoughts, compulsive actions, irrational anger, shyness, phobias, low self-esteem, a sense of being unfulfilled, nervous irritability, and many more. Psychoanalysis does not promise a quick cure but holds hope that through better understanding of oneself and others, one can achieve an correction of symptoms as well as smoother and more effective socialization regarding behavior. It has been found that many psychological problems originate from painful misunderstandings or outright failures in the childs relationship to his or her parents. The method of treatment seems simple at first. The patient is instructed to say absolutely everything that comes to mind without censoring anything, a technique that is called free association. This brings about a state of regression in which long -forgotten events and painful encounters are remembered, often with great clarity and intense emotions. The analyst often can trace the connection between the patients current fantasies and feelings about the analyst and the origin of these thoughts and emotions in childhood experiences. These conflicts and traumas, together with the accompanying fears and feelings, are then are interpreted by the analyst. If treatment is successful, the patient learns to recognize the connections between past and present. The combination of insight and the emotional re-experience during the regressed state can cause a reorganization of the psychological structures into more healthfully adaptive patterns. From the beginnings in the late 19th century, psychoanalytic theory and practice have continued to develop into the present modern practices. Initially, Freud believed that forgotten sexual seductions of children were the cause of neurosis and that remembering the trauma and emotions was therapeutic. He later modified and elaborated his views into the theory of infantile instinctual drives as the motivating force for normal behavior and as the cause of neurosis if repressed. Continuing research has discovered much evidence that the early relationships between children and parents, have the greatest impact on later psychological development. The influence of the care-givers, especially during infancy, leave a lasting imprint on the personality. Any experience with objects, including persons, that evoke and strengthen the self are self-object experiences and are needed by every human being from birth to death in order to sustain a cohesive self. Absence of or faulty self-object experie nces cause a loss of cohesion with the self. Lisas character was a prime candidate for Freuds psychoanalysis. She followed many of the stereotypical guidelines set by Freuds studies. Her reality failed her, so a more vibrant one was created in order to suppress years of secrets, neglect, and the pain from it all. Her character was eventually brought back into a state of reality, but it was too late to save her. The true reality that faced her was the grimace of death of her true self in the end. .u98c51022c07b8bc3cdf9e344489cd9d0 , .u98c51022c07b8bc3cdf9e344489cd9d0 .postImageUrl , .u98c51022c07b8bc3cdf9e344489cd9d0 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u98c51022c07b8bc3cdf9e344489cd9d0 , .u98c51022c07b8bc3cdf9e344489cd9d0:hover , .u98c51022c07b8bc3cdf9e344489cd9d0:visited , .u98c51022c07b8bc3cdf9e344489cd9d0:active { border:0!important; } .u98c51022c07b8bc3cdf9e344489cd9d0 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u98c51022c07b8bc3cdf9e344489cd9d0 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u98c51022c07b8bc3cdf9e344489cd9d0:active , .u98c51022c07b8bc3cdf9e344489cd9d0:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u98c51022c07b8bc3cdf9e344489cd9d0 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u98c51022c07b8bc3cdf9e344489cd9d0 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u98c51022c07b8bc3cdf9e344489cd9d0 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u98c51022c07b8bc3cdf9e344489cd9d0 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u98c51022c07b8bc3cdf9e344489cd9d0:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u98c51022c07b8bc3cdf9e344489cd9d0 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u98c51022c07b8bc3cdf9e344489cd9d0 .u98c51022c07b8bc3cdf9e344489cd9d0-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u98c51022c07b8bc3cdf9e344489cd9d0:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Career as a military officer EssayWords/ Pages : 1,341 / 24

Saturday, November 30, 2019

John Fowles The French Lieutenants Woman Essay Example

John Fowles The French Lieutenants Woman Essay According to Nelson Vieira, John Fowles The French Lieutenants Woman: falls under the rubric of what is commonly known today as metafiction. Metafictional writers thus operate and function with a freedom of exposing illusion for what it is- a device used to mask narrative as a construct and a figment of ones imagination.1 John Fowles has no qualms about admitting that literature is, in fact just an illusion. This is most noticeable in his telling the reader that The story I am telling is all imagination. The characters I create never existed outside my own mind2. It seems then, that John Fowles, in destroying the readers illusion, and also destroys the suspension of disbelief necessary in following a story told by an omniscient narrator3 We will write a custom essay sample on John Fowles The French Lieutenants Woman specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on John Fowles The French Lieutenants Woman specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on John Fowles The French Lieutenants Woman specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Fowles destruction of this suspension of disbelief in reminding us of the fictitious nature of all characters and events taking place creates a gulf between himself, or his story, and the reader. To be drawn into the world of fiction, we must feel that it is true, and that we are a part of a real world, and not merely some illusion or magic trick. It is also impossible for the reader to take ownership of the story when the author is so insistent at writing himself into the novel. Fowles not only intrusively reminds us that he writes a fiction and not a truth, but appears himself in the shape of the man in the railway carriage- we are, however, further confused as to whether, perhaps, his story is based in reality, as he observes Charles and asks now what could I do with you?4 This brings us to the conclusion that, perhaps, Fowles truly observed a man on a train, and, in doing so, brought the character of Charles, and so the story, into being, and so confuses the story from reality. It becomes nearly impossible to distinguish reality from the artificial when Fowles suggests that he is perhaps writing a transposed autobiography; perhaps I now live in one of the houses I have brought into the fiction; perhaps Charles is myself disguised.5 We feel that if the author himself cannot decide to which depth his story is, in fact a reality, then we cannot hope to engage with it either as a piece of fiction or a factual document. Palmer points out that: Fowles intrudes in chapter thirteen in order to jolt the reader who, reading this seemingly traditional historical novel is becoming too passively comfortable in his over-stuffed arm chair. He wants to start a dialogue with his reader.6 Whilst this is indeed most probably, in fact, almost certainly, Fowles intention, it does interfere with storytelling. A story is any narrative or tale recounting the sequence of events7, and Fowles interruption only interrupts the story, although it may give the reader a more mental exercise. Palmer also claims that Fowles is attempting to free the reader from the traditional role of passive, uninvolved observer8, but one must wonder whether the reader wishes to be so liberated. He certainly does free himself and his characters from the tyrannising roles of the traditional novelist god-character relationship9, but rather than freeing his readership, he has enslaved them. Rather than being at liberty to enjoy the narrative, they are forced into a realisation that the world constructed around them is merely that, a construct. However, having forced his reader into a realisation that they have been living in a world of mere make-believe, Fowles taunts his audience, in telling them that my characters still exist, and in a reality no less, or no more real than the one I have just broken.10 Whilst this may seem a confusion, and confusion most certainly is an alienation of the reader, problematising the role of both the author and the story, he is, in fact referring to the reality he has just broken, which, as he has just told us, is no reality at all, but a mere construct. Fowles seems to torment his reader with unsure statements whilst keeping them from the narrative, the purpose of a novel. Fowles has been described as a writer stalking himself, or better, he is a novelist writing into a mirror so that each or his works reflect back upon his own mind and vision11. The reader is never sure what to believe of the novel, just as we are never sure where two mirrors reflecting in on themselves may end. It is in just this way that we cannot tell where Charles will end: indeed, even Fowles seems not to know, hence his triple ending. This too, could present a barrier for his readership: if Fowles, as the author and creator of the text, cannot discern the direction of a narrative, how then, is his readership supposed to manage such a feat? We are given the impression that Fowles is perhaps remarkably indecisive, which brings us out o our suspension of disbelief almost as much as the authorial interruptions. This confusion over plot in his inability to come to a conclusion could be rooted in Fowles determination to rewrite the Victorian novel. Even character is at time confused- we are unsure as to Fowles intentions for Charles, or even Charles origins as a literary figure. Palmer claims that the novel hangs insuspension: between the traditions of Victorian fiction, with its attendant restrictions, and the experimental, intensely-self conscious novel of the mid-twentieth century.12 He also reiterates that The French Lieutenants Woman is, in one of its many aspects, Fowless dramatisation of his own theory of the novel. It is a metatheatrical work of literary criticism.13 It is this idea of the metafiction that provides the complexities of the novel, but also draws the reader away from the characters, creating a barrier between them and the story. We feel that we are, perhaps, guinea pigs for Fowles experiments with literature. The same could be said of Virginia Woolfs Jacobs Room. It has been described as Woolfs most consciously experimental novel14, as so much of the modernist movement is an attempt to break away from the Victorian style that Fowles attempts to recreate. She shies away from the normal, and particularly the narrative- Zwerdling cites her as claiming to want to do away with exact place and time, this appalling narrative business of the realist: getting on from lunch to dinner: it is false, unreal, merely conventional 15. In doing this she cuts out much of the tedium of the Victorian novel, but yet has a good chance of leaving her reader floundering: we may feel at the end of the novel that we do not truly know even Jacob, let alone the peripheral characters. He has been described as far too shadowy a figure who fails to come to life.16 There are few reference points within the novel: Woolf has indeed succeeded in her goal of doing away with typical narrative. We see only brief but typical vignettes chosen seemingly at random,17 and have little means of stringing them together to form a picture of his true character and experiences. Joan Bennett claims that the novel builds up no whole that can be held in the mind18 As such, Jacobs Room seems not so much to problematise storytelling as to obliterate any concept of story. Zwerdling describes Jacobs Room as a surgical excision of clogged detail.19 However, we must consider the meshing of art and science in this idea. A surgical excision seems very far from the constructive art of writing, and, whilst surgery is an exacting, science-dependant field, writing, surely, is a free art, the bounds of which are only the farthest reaches of the imagination, not the facts of textbooks. Whereas Fowles makes us wonder as to the true reality of his characters and story, especially Charles, suggesting that he sees much of Charles in himself, Woolf admits to actively disliking Jacob. Zwerdling suggests that this is largely thanks to his sex, quoting Woolf in Jacobs Room- granted ten years seniority and a difference of sex, fear of him comes first20. Frank Kermode, in the biographical preface to Jacobs Room suggests that this might be possibly related to the sexual molestation of which her half-brother, George Duckworth is accused.21 He also puts points out that there have been many accounts of the marriage very hostile to Leonard Woolf22. Indeed, Woolf gives Jacob thoughts that she, as a woman in the twentieth century, surely could not agree with- he compares the presence of women at the Kings College service to the presence of dogs: No one would think of bringing a dog into church. For though a dog is all very well on a gravel path, and shows no disrespect to flowers, the way he wanders down an aisle, looking, lifting a paw, approaching a pillar with a purpose that makes the blood run cold with horror (should you be one of the congregation- alone, shyness is out of the question), a dog destroys the service completely.23 As educated as she was, although not having attended university, Virginia Woolf could not have agreed with such ideas. As a modern reader, these ideas grate on our sense of equality. In an age where education is available regardless of gender, moments such as these create a distance between the writing and the reader and prevent a true feeling of connection with the text. The French Lieutenants Woman too has some anti-feminist moments, which could present a barrier between the text and a potential readership- Charles believes that Ernestina, as a woman could no possibly hold the same value as a man: He could not be angry with her. After all, she was only a woman. There were so many things she must never understand: the richness of male life, the enormous difficulty of being one to whom the world was rather more than dress and home and children.24 However, this could also represent the other side of the argument- whilst Fowles may alienate a segment of society which was active at the time of the novels publication; he was also attempting to echo the Victorian novel, in which this would very much be a recognised and accepted viewpoint- the Victorian icon- the angel in the house the presiding hearth angel of Victorian social myth25. Charles expects women to stay the same, and to be reliant on men- he expects Sarah to rely on him, and seems to find her making her own way in the world faintly repulsive. In one way, therefore Fowles is problematising his storytelling in possibly alienating a part of his readership, but also moving his story closer to the goal he set out to achieve. As I earlier pointed out in relation to The French Lieutenants Woman, the purpose of storytelling is for entertainment; therefore making a stilted or confusing narrative will certainly problematise the process of storytelling. Jacobs Room is very much a metaphorical text: McNichol points out that there has been too much concentration on what the novel is not26 largely because of a failure to grasp the originality of Virginia Woolfs new conception of a novel27 However; she also notes that it is, in fact, an abstract and theoretic work28, and so we must wonder how much of a story it is, or whether it is, in fact, a challenge to the nature of fiction itself29, and as such, more an academic treatise than a novel. The metaphorical nature of the text is made clear in the relation of the title to the work: the room of the title is in fact in the context of the space, metal and physical, which is occupied by Jacob Flanders30 rather than the physical rooms in which we see him in the course of the novel: asleep in Cornwall with his sheeps jaw, at Cambridge, and at Lambs Conduit Street, among others. As a metaphorical text, the novel is designed not so much for the process of storytelling as to make a statement on the accepted structure. Virginia Woolf is a far more solid presence in the text that any of her characters; indeed, McNichol presents Jacobs Room as being full of authorial dialectic31, just as The French Lieutenants Woman is full of authorial intervention. It seems that the role of the author and the role of storytelling are, to an extent, mutually exclusive. For the author to have a role in their text, it seems they must take a presence in it, as Fowles does in chapter thirteen, and as Woolf does in making Jacobs Room more about an experiment conducted by her than about her characters and plot, and so her readership. As I have pointed out, this concentration on the experiment disrupts the idea of storytelling: for a reader to fully appreciate a story, they must be able to view it as a reality, which the readership of both texts cannot truly do, as the author refuses to give up their place in the piece. Whilst the author is present, we are aware that the constructed world is just that, a fiction, where we would prefer to believe if as a reality, at least for a time. It seems that for storytelling to be effective, therefore, the role of the author must only extend as far as the writing of the story, not featuring in it. As such, storytelling in these texts is problematised by the role of the author, and the role of the author is problematised by storytelling.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Gladiator Essay Example

Gladiator Essay Example Gladiator Essay Gladiator Essay In the opening sequence of the Gladiator, the director, Ridley Scott uses a number of techniques to build excitement and capture the attention of the audience. In this essay I will analyse and review these techniques. The film was released in May of 2000 and had a budget of $100 million (US). This genre of movie is known as Sword and Sandal epics, which were a very popular style preceding World War II, but became less so when people decided that there were too many terrible things taking place in their own world and they did not want to see it in the movies. Other films such as Ben Hur and Spartacus created high standards for any successors, standards which Gladiator has fulfilled and added to.The director begins the movie with a variation on the well known Universal and Dreamworks logos. The normally blue logos have been placed under a yellow filter, giving the immediate impression that the movie must be quite influential in order to exact this change, creating anticipation for the outcome of the film. Also the use of this feature helps to add to the feeling that the story is set in a time which has passed us and will never come back, and creating a feeling of nostalgia. The director then presents the audience with information about the events preceding the beginning of the story, which is framed in a plain script and a smoky-yellow background. The director has created this scene in such a way, so as to not reveal any of the actual plot or storyline and is arguably just to entice the audience even more.The melodious voice of the Australian born Lisa Gerrard is a sweet relaxant and is used by the director to ease the audience into the next scene; an image of a hand brushing over wheat. There is the sound of a warm breeze blowing and children laughing and playing in the background, which adds to the aura of warmth given to the audience by the use of yellow filter on the camera.The director then creates the next scene in stark contrast with its predecessor and to create an understanding of the character, who appears as a silent, battle clad figure of General Maximus Decimus Meridius, framed by the dark Germanic mountainside (rather than the yellow wheat fields of the dream sequence). The director has now made use of a blue filter and this continues through the rest of the sequence and is completely contrasting to the warm yellow of the scene before. The wind is howling and suddenly the director shows us an image of a small robin looking at the man and fluttering away. The wing-beats are heavily accented to exaggerate the feeling of silence before a storm or the fact that Maximus is so in touch with the world around him that he hears every little sound, which, as we later find out, is a very important feature of his character and influences his decisions in all things.Upon first sighting of the character Maximus, the director aims to inspire a feel of awe and honour and has portrayed him thus in order to create an unmistakeable contrast betw een the character of Maximus and Commodus, heir to the throne. Maximus is a general in the army of Rome and although he has yet to set eyes upon the city, he places full allegiance in the hands of his emperor, the dying figure of Marcus Aurelius (Richard Harris). Later on we discover that he was dreaming about his home and family, whom he had not seen since the start of his campaign. This fact adds to his aura of loyalty and shows us that unlike most figures of power, he is not entertained by thoughts of personal wealth and power, but rather than that by a code of honour and loyalty and above all else, a love for his family, which the director has used to capture the audiences emotion and create a love for Maximus. Seeing the robin makes him smile because it reminds him of home and possibly he sees it ironically; the robin leaving is the innocence leaving before the war, this also shows that he takes pleasure in the small things in life and is not just a general intent on winning, h e is also a normal person with a sense of humanity. The audience will like this aspect of his character and it will bring them closer to the character.In the next scene the director shows us how Maximus troops react to him. The director uses a low angle shot for this part of the sequence and this is a useful technique because it helps to emphasise that he is a figure to be revered and respected and that this is the way others see him. The camera moves along with Maximus and it is from this point of view that the audience is shown the way his troops think of him; as a friend rather than just a figure of authority. The use of this type of shot makes the audience feel that they are witnessing the event as a participant rather than someone with a detached outlook on the scene. The director has emphasised this by the fact that Maximus is walking among his men and greets certain individuals among them whom he has personal experience with, showing that he has shared in their trials.Music p lays a vast role in this sequence and there are three major types of music apparent; the use of a Spanish guitar, the lone voice of Lisa Gerrard and the energetic and fast paced music with a full accompaniment. The Spanish guitar is used when we first see Maximus and continues into the battle scene. It is very fast paced and energetic and helps to build up a feeling of expectance. It introduces a very Mediterranean feel to the movie and quickens the pace of the scene at the same time because it is almost a signal for the battle to start. From its slow trickle to the full on force of the orchestra, it provides an immense build up of energy and expectation, which is all spent as it returns to the slowed, blurred scene of the victory and the calming of hearts, taking the audiences expectation with it, giving a sense of melancholy back.During the battle scene, there is a full orchestra playing, giving a feeling of clashing and violence, as well as one of well-ordered chaos. The piece, c omposed by musician Hans Zimmer, was inspired by the Viennese Waltz and Gustav Holsts, Mars: Bringer of War and both play a huge part in the sequence. The militaristic percussions, strings, and brass accents are some of the more typical elements of music found in Zimmers composition, and they combat desperately with what elements are left of the actual waltz, adding to the whole effect of battle and clashing.A chief aspect in the more supernatural side of the movie was the lone voice of Lisa Gerrard, with her soothing voice adding a Middle-Eastern feel to the movie. Her touch compliments the elements of the Elysium fields during the dream sequence and that of Maximus family that Ridley Scott has incorporated into the film. The skill photography, time lapse, and slow motion effects, allow the audience to be transported into the fields of Elysium and experience at full of such a powerful voice at work.Another key aspect to the sequence is the constant use of contrasts; they are used t o show emphasis on certain events and to help us understand what is taking place in the scene. The first major contrast shown to us is that of the dream sequence in the wheat fields and the first image of the battlefield. The dream sequence is very calm and peaceful and has been shot under a yellow filter. There is the sound of a lone womans voice and of children playing. The wind has also been made audible but it is in the form of a warm breeze and the director conveys an overall sense of warmth in this scene. In direct contrast with this is the battlefield scene; set in the dark Germanic mountainside, with a howling wind in the background. The scene is now under a blue filter and is cold and hard in comparison to the original scene. Even the characters are in contrast in this part as in the former scene there is a caressing hand, running over the wheat crops, clad in normal clothing whereas in the latter, an armour clad warrior. Another example of contrast is between the organisat ion of the Roman army and the mass gathering that is the German Horde. The Roman army seems to be very command driven and restrained, in waiting for the actual battle whereas the Germans are a disorganised rabble, who can barely restrain themselves and will do whatever they want, once released they will just charge with no thought for the consequences. This is meant to reflect the difference between Rome and its enemies, portraying Rome as The Light and its enemies as inferior. The constant use of contrast helps our understanding of how Rome was portrayed and show innocence compared to barbarity and order compared to disorder.During the battle Ridley Scott has created a distinct lack of dialogue between the characters, and when there is speech, it is used to advance the scene. There is one monologue as Maximus communicates with them regiment before the battle and he tries to inspire his cavalry ending with, What we do now echoes in eternity. From then on, the whole scene becomes gra phic and in a way this is more descriptive than it would have actually been with the use of dialogue.The director uses heavily exaggerated sounds during the battle scene as this helps to add to the all-encompassing effect of war. The galloping of the horses hooves upon the battlefield is one of these examples and makes the enemy turn and notice it because it is so loud, and this shows the audience the sheer scale of the Roman army. Another sound that was heavily exaggerated was the constant firing of flaming arrows whistling through the air, seemingly ceaseless giving a feeling of lost hope for the German army and in a way for Romes humanity. Also, the exploding fireball is a sudden burst of energy into what seems a dull landscape, charging the battle with more tension and excitement and reviving the energy of the scene.Another feature of the opening sequence is that it prepares us for future events in the film through symbolism. The dog that accompanies Maximus into the battle is s ymbolic of his loyalty to his family and emperor as dogs are widely known for their loyalty and this is noticeable in the fact that he dedicates his whole life to avenge the death of his family and emperor at any personal cost. The dialogue used by Maximus in this scene is also repeated later in the movie when he is a gladiator, and uses his skills to defeat his enemies. There is also the reoccurring event of him rubbing dirt on his hands before each battle, this is symbolic of his farming roots.In conclusion I think that the director did very well building up excitement as the scenes were filed with tension and expectation and this in coupling with the astounding musical abilities of Hans Zimmer brought Gladiator to what it is now. The film was so successful because it reflects a blood and glorious past, which we humans created and grew from, and how the grip of love reaches past all barriers to people. Overall I think that the director was very successful in the creation of this s cene and the whole opening sequence entices us to want more.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Google Earth and Archaeology

Google Earth and Archaeology Google Earth, software that uses high resolution satellite images of the entire planet to allow the user to get an incredible moving aerial view of our world, has stimulated some serious applications in archaeologyand seriously good fun for fans of archaeology.One of the reasons I love flying in airplanes is the view you get from the window. Soaring over vast tracks of land and getting a glimpse of large archaeological sites (if you know what to look for, and the weather is right, and youre on the right side of the plane), is one of the great modern pleasures of the world today. Sadly, security issues and rising costs have sucked most of the fun out of airline trips these days. And, lets face it, even when all the climatological forces are right, there just arent any labels on the ground to tell you what youre looking at anyway. Google Earth Placemarks and Archaeology But, using Google Earth and capitalizing on the talent and time of people like JQ Jacobs, you can see high resolution satellite photographs of the world, and easily find and investigate archaeological wonders like Machu Picchu, slowly floating down the mountains or racing through the narrow valley of the Inca trail like a Jedi knight, all without leaving your computer.Essentially, Google Earth (or just GE) is an extremely detailed, high resolution map of the world. Its users add labels called placemarkers to the map, indicating cities and restaurants and sports arenas and geocaching sites, all using a fairly sophisticated Geographic Information System client. After theyve created the placemarkers, the users post a link to them on one of the bulletin boards at Google Earth. But dont let the GIS connection scare you off! After installation and a little fussing with the interface, you too can zoom along the narrow steep-sided Inca trail in Peru or poke around the landscape at Stonehenge or take a visual tour of castles in Europe. Or if youve got the time to study up, you too can add placemarkers of your own.JQ Jacobs has long been a contributor of quality content about archaeology on the Internet. With a wink, he warns would-be users, Im glimpsing a possible forthcoming chronic disorder, Google Earth Addiction. In February of 2006, Jacobs began posting placemark files on his website, marking several archaeological sites with a concentration on Hopewellian earthworks of the American northeast. Another user on Google Earth is simply known as H21, who has assembled placemarkers for castles in France, and Roman and Greek amphitheatres. Some of the site placemarkers on Google Earth are simple location points, but others have lots of information attachedso be careful, like anywhere else on the Internet, there be dragons, er, inaccuracies. Survey Techniques and Google Earth On a more serious but downright exciting note, GE has also been used successfully to survey for archaeological sites. Searching for crop marks on aerial photos is a time-tested way to identify possible archaeological sites, so it seems reasonable that high resolution satellite imagery would be a fruitful source of identification. Sure enough, researcher Scott Madry, who is leading one of the oldest large-scale remote sensing projects on the planet called GIS and Remote Sensing for Archaeology: Burgundy, France, has had great success identifying archaeological sites using Google Earth. Sitting in his office at Chapel Hill, Madry used Google Earth to identify over 100 possible sites in France; fully 25% of those were previously unrecorded. Find the Archaeology Game Find the Archaeology is a game on the Google Earth community bulletin board where people post an aerial photograph of an archaeological site and players must figure out where in the world it is or what in the world it is. The answerif its been discoveredwill be in postings at the bottom of the page; sometimes printed in white lettering so if you see the words in white click and drag your mouse over the area. There simply isnt yet a very good structure to the bulletin board, so Ive collected several of the game entries in Find the Archaeology.  Sign in to Google Earth to play; you dont need to have Google Earth installed to guess. There is a bit of a process to trying Google Earth; but its well worth the effort. First, make sure you have the recommended hardware to use Google Earth without driving you and your computer crazy. Then, download and install Google Earth to your computer. Once it has been installed, go to JQs site and click on one of the links where hes created placemarks, follow another link in my collection, or simply search the Illustrated History bulletin board at Google Earth.After youve clicked on a placemark link, Google Earth will open and a marvelous image of the planet will spin to find the site and zoom in. Before flying in Google Earth, turn on the GE Community and Terrain layers; youll find a series of layers in the left hand menu. Use your mouse wheel to zoom in closer or farther away. Click and drag to move the map east or west, north or south. Tilt the image or spin the globe by using the cross-compass in the upper right hand corner.Placemarkers added by Google Earth users are indica ted by an icon such as a yellow thumbtack. Click on an i icon for detailed information, ground-level photos or further links for information. A blue-and-white cross indicates a ground level photograph. Some of the links take you to part of a Wikipedia entry. Users can also integrate data and media with geographic location in GE. For some Eastern Woodlands mound groups, Jacobs utilized his own GPS readings, linking online photography in the appropriate placemarks, and adding overlay placemarks with old Squier and Davis survey maps to display mounds now destroyed in their place.If you really get ambitious, sign up for a Google Earth Community account and read their guidelines. Placemarks you contribute will appear on Google Earth when they update. There is a fairly steep learning curve to understanding how to add placemarks, but it can be done. More details on how to use Google Earth can be found at Google Earth on About, from Abouts guide to Google Marziah Karch, or JQs Ancient Placemarkers page, or Abouts Space guide Nick Gr eenes Google Earth page. Flying and Google Earth Flying may not be an option for many of us these days, but this latest option from Google allows us to get much of the joy of flying without the hassle of going through security. And what a great way to learn about archaeology!

Thursday, November 21, 2019

An advertisement Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

An advertisement - Essay Example The predominantly blue background, symbolizing a blue paper has lightening hue from darker shade at the top portion to lighter shade at the bottom. Thus, the white background representing the magazine page was seen to contain a supposedly sheared and crumpled blue paper symbolizing a perfectly slim image effectively complements the orange color of the product. The ad actually elicited enhanced audience appeal in terms of being intrigued and wanting to find out more about the product from the way the ad is presented. As such, the audience would find out greater details from the text and from the product label. However, since the presentation tends to be exhibited more on a formal structure, due to the absence of any model or celebrity to endorse it, it has tendencies to exclude luring appeal from the younger population. The product is the main thrust and focus in the ad: being at the center of the print ad and where the product image occupies more than 50% of the page. Thus, the product is obvious and easily detected. In addition, since its image is presented through the actual visual representation of the product, the appropriate product label that gives crucial information is effectively provided. There is a text message situated at the top-most portion of the page with large font and white in color over the blue background. Another smaller set of text messages is shown just above of the lid of the bottle in darker blue font. Plus, the printed page of magazine at the background could be seen as a typical full narrative page in black text and typical sized font on a predominantly white background. Finally, only the text from the product label could be seen in this ad. As above mentioned, the texts of the advertisements are diversely presented. The text at the topmost portion of the page says: ‘For a slimming feel’ which is typed in two different font sizes. The words ‘For a’ and ‘feel’ have the same white color and size; while

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

The Beta Group Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Beta Group - Case Study Example Beta became a successful group in corporate world because it created and offered new technological solutions in certain business sectors such as medical, consumer products, and industrial technology. The group actually identified where the gaps exist in the market and how they could be matched through use of technology and research & development. The actual business model of The Beta Group is known as Business Engineering that refers to development of a concept and business strategy through comprehensive marker research followed by analysis of potential and scope of certain products and technologies. Indeed, the group first identifies an opportunity in the marketplace after which it initiates research and evaluates the competition, underlying issues and how the needs could be met. If research proves successful then the needs are matched through hunting and development of a proprietary technology or an innovative process. Nevertheless, it is justified to argue that Beta Group has tran slated innovation into value through creation of new technologies by using innovative ideas. As a result, the proprietary technologies have benefited in meeting consumer meets for which no solutions were previously available in market. In short, the aforementioned created value for patients and customers from every walk of life.

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Progressive Insurance Essay Example for Free

Progressive Insurance Essay Teenagers and young adults in today’s time usually have minds of their own. I honestly believe family, friends, and the media all play major parts in their lives and have great influence on them. Most people think that television, cellphones, and social networking are the causes of their corrupt minds, but in all reality every little aspect has influence on them in some way. Television, cellphones, and social networks, better known as â€Å"the media† plays a great influence on teenagers that’s the new trend at this present time, that’s all teenagers know. Even though family and friends are teenager’s biggest support, they feel the need to run to more. Teenagers and young adults honestly feel as if they can be themselves on these sites sad, but very true. You will soon find out that teenagers will open up and express themselves to Facebook, twitter, and instagram before they open up and talk to their parents about life issues they go through. Right now that’s all teenagers really knows to do. Parents do not enforce rules like they use too. Parents do not make it mandatory that the family have dinner together at the family table. Most parents don’t sit down and talk to their children to make sure they’re doing a good job in school. Days now have parents working two jobs because there’s only one parent in the homes. You also have parents on these social websites with their children making them feel as if it’s okay to do some of those things. After observing the masses, the media has the most influence over our teenagers. It’s sad, but it’s definitely true. Parents need to go back and fix these things, and make better examples for their young ones. It’s never too late.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Character in Katherine Anne Porters The Jilting of Granny Weatherall :: The Jilting of Granny Weatherall

Character in Katherine Anne Porter's â€Å"The Jilting of Granny Weatherall† â€Å"The Jilting of Granny Weatherall,† a short story by Katherine Anne Porter, describes the last thoughts, feelings, and memories of an elderly woman. As Granny Weatherall’s life literally â€Å"flashes† before her eyes, the importance of the title of the story becomes obvious. Granny Weatherall has been in some way deceived or disappointed in every love relationship of her life. Her past lover George, husband John, daughter Cornelia, and God all did an injustice by what Porter refers to as â€Å"jilting.† This unending cycle of wrongdoing caused Granny to be a mixture of strength, bitterness, and ultimate fear as she faces her last moments in life. Granny gained her strength by the people that she felt jilted by. George stood Granny up at the altar. He never showed at all and it is never stated that she heard from him again. The pain forced Granny to be strong as is proven by her thoughts when she is asked if anything could be done for her. â€Å" I want you to find George. Find him and be sure to tell him I forgot him. I want him to know I had my husband just the same and my children and my house like any other woman†¦ Tell him I was given back everything he took away and more† (Porter 584). Granny did marry a man named John, but her strength was again tested when he died at a young age, leaving her to raise their children on her own. â€Å"Sometimes she wanted to see John again and point to them and say, well, I didn’t do so badly did I?† (582). She had been strong enough to carry the burden of two lost loves and raise good children at the same time. It was one of these children, Cornelia, who made her act somewhat bitterly in her last days. With her daughter whispering about her and saying she should be humored at her old age, Granny felt like she had been in some way betrayed. â€Å"It was strange about children. They disputed your every word† (584). She felt like Cornelia was treating her like a child. â€Å"The thing that most annoyed her was that Cornelia thought she was deaf, dumb, and blind. Little hasty glances and tiny gestures tossed around her and over her head saying, ‘Don’t cross her, let her have her way, she’s eighty years old,’ and she sitting there as if she lived in a thick glass cage† (582). Character in Katherine Anne Porter's The Jilting of Granny Weatherall :: The Jilting of Granny Weatherall Character in Katherine Anne Porter's â€Å"The Jilting of Granny Weatherall† â€Å"The Jilting of Granny Weatherall,† a short story by Katherine Anne Porter, describes the last thoughts, feelings, and memories of an elderly woman. As Granny Weatherall’s life literally â€Å"flashes† before her eyes, the importance of the title of the story becomes obvious. Granny Weatherall has been in some way deceived or disappointed in every love relationship of her life. Her past lover George, husband John, daughter Cornelia, and God all did an injustice by what Porter refers to as â€Å"jilting.† This unending cycle of wrongdoing caused Granny to be a mixture of strength, bitterness, and ultimate fear as she faces her last moments in life. Granny gained her strength by the people that she felt jilted by. George stood Granny up at the altar. He never showed at all and it is never stated that she heard from him again. The pain forced Granny to be strong as is proven by her thoughts when she is asked if anything could be done for her. â€Å" I want you to find George. Find him and be sure to tell him I forgot him. I want him to know I had my husband just the same and my children and my house like any other woman†¦ Tell him I was given back everything he took away and more† (Porter 584). Granny did marry a man named John, but her strength was again tested when he died at a young age, leaving her to raise their children on her own. â€Å"Sometimes she wanted to see John again and point to them and say, well, I didn’t do so badly did I?† (582). She had been strong enough to carry the burden of two lost loves and raise good children at the same time. It was one of these children, Cornelia, who made her act somewhat bitterly in her last days. With her daughter whispering about her and saying she should be humored at her old age, Granny felt like she had been in some way betrayed. â€Å"It was strange about children. They disputed your every word† (584). She felt like Cornelia was treating her like a child. â€Å"The thing that most annoyed her was that Cornelia thought she was deaf, dumb, and blind. Little hasty glances and tiny gestures tossed around her and over her head saying, ‘Don’t cross her, let her have her way, she’s eighty years old,’ and she sitting there as if she lived in a thick glass cage† (582).

Monday, November 11, 2019

Effective ways of teaching method Essay

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of various teaching methods used for teaching students at secondary level, i search about perceptions of best and effective teaching methods and the reason for that. I searched that most of the students rated lecture method as the best teaching method. Becuse of the teacher provides all knowledge related to topic, time saving, students attentively listen lecture and take notes. The group discussion was the second best method of teaching because of more participation of students, the learning is more effective, the students don’t have to rely on rote learning, and this method develops creativity among students. To make an effective learning methods first Remember that your students are supposed to be the beneficiaries of your communication. Don’t make too many assumptions about your students. â€Å" This Research indicates also that students are the most qualified sources to report on the extent to which the learning experience was productive, informative, satisfying, or worthwhile. While opinions on these matters are not direct measures of teacher’s effectiveness, they are legitimate indicators of student satisfaction, and there is substantial research linking student satisfaction to effective teaching. This research aim to tell you some methods on how the student may learned through effective learning strategies that the teacher may use. Teaching strategies refer to methods used to help students learn the desired course contents and be able to develop achievable goals in the future. Teaching strategies identify the different available learning methods to enable them to develop the right strategy to deal with the target group identified. Assessment of the learning capabilities of students provides a key pillar in development of a successful teaching strategy. BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Danielson, Charlotte – Path ways to teaching series Merrill/Pearson,2010 – Education Frey, Nancy phD – the effective teacher’s guide M. E. S. ELIZABETH – methods of teaching english English language – 2004 B. INTERNET Clas. web. nthu. edu. tw/esfiles Effective teaching methods I. INTRODUCTION II. BODY OF CONTENT A. Why is it important ? B. Teaching Methods b1. Lecture Methods b2. Discussion Methods b3. Role Play b4. Case Study b5. Brain Storming b6. Assignment Methods IV. RECOMENDATION V. BIBLIOGRAPHY EFFECTIVE WAYS OF TEACHING METHODS AT SECONDARY LEVEL. II. Why is it important ? Teaching is extraordinarily important, complex, and demanding work,and a teacher’s workday consists of making hundreds of decisions that promote high-level student learning. The work is and should be daunting. Grounded and concise, this first edition text provides readers with theory-based practices that will illuminate the art and craft of teaching. The literature on teaching is crammed full of well researched ways that teachers can present content and skills that will enhance the opportunities for students to learn. It is equally filled with suggestions of what not to do in the classroom. However, there is no rule book on which teaching methods match up best to which skills and/or content that is being taught. Students often have little expertise in knowing if the method selected by an individual instructor was the best teaching method or just â€Å"a method† or simply the method with which the teacher was most comfortable. There is much debate within the higher education community on how teaching or teaching effectiveness may be defined that is why this kind of research is important for them to have an idea how they will be able to conduct an effective teaching methods for their student. III. TEACHING METHODS LECTURE METHOD Lecture Method: A lecture is a talk or verbal presentation given by a lecturer,trainer or speaker to an audience. With all the advancement of training systems and computer technology, lecture method is still a backbone widely used in teaching and training at higher level of education. This method is economical, can be used for a large number of students, material can be covered in a structured manner and the teacher has a great control of time and material. A study conducted by Benson, L. , Schroeder, P. , Lantz, C. , and Bird, M (n. d. ). provides evidence that students may place greater emphasis on lecture material than on textbooks. Lecturing is not simply a matter of standing in front of a class and reciting what you know. The classroom lecture is a special form of communication in which voice, gesture, movement, facial expression, and eye contact can either complement or detract from the content. Teaching Methods† stated strengths of lecture method that it presents factual material in direct, logical manner, contains experience which inspires, stimulates thinking to open discussion, and useful for large groups. Our findings also revealed that most of the students considered lecture as best method because according to opinion of students it creates new ideas, it is good for large class, develops creativity among students, teacher is experienced and has mastery on subject, explain all points and can answer all questions by students. Lecture gives the pupils training in listening and taking rapid notes. For Improving Lecture Methods. †¢ Lecture material should be stimulating and thought provoking. †¢ Information should be delivered dramatically by using example to make it memorable. †¢ The teacher needs to use questions throughout the lecture to involve students in the learning process and to check their comprehension. †¢ Reinforce learning by using visual supports like transparencies, flip charts, whiteboard/ black board etc. †¢ Teacher should take feedback of students to improve lecture meth †¢ DISCUSSION It is a free verbal exchange of ideas between group members or teacher and students. For effective discussion the students should have prior knowledge and information about the topic to be discussed. discussion as, pools ideas and experiences from group, an allows everyone to participate in an active process. Our study also revealed that the students rated group discussion (class discussion) as the second best method by giving reasons that; it has more participation of students, the learning is more effective, the students don’t have to rely on rote learning, every student give his/ her opinion, and this method develops creativity among students. For Improving Discussion Methods †¢ The teacher should spend sufficient time in preparing the process and steps of discussion. †¢ Different aspects of the topic and the parameters should be selected for the focused discussion. †¢ Sufficient time should be allotted to discuss all the issues. At the same time students should know the time limit to reach a conclusion. †¢ The teacher in the beginning should introduce the topic, the purpose of discussion, and the students participating in discussion. †¢ Before the start of discussion, background information about the topic should be provided. †¢ There is a need to include questions to provide direction. †¢ Relaxed environment should be created to foster the process of discussion †¢ Teacher after opening the discussion should play the role of a facilitator involving every one and at the end should summarize the discussion. †¢ Encourage students listen other’s point of view and then evaluate their own. †¢ Teacher should give value to all students’ opinions and try not to allow his/her own difference of opinion, prevent communication and debate. †¢ROLE PLAY occurs when participants take on differentiated roles in a simulation. These may be highly prescribed, including biographical details, and even personality, attitudes and beliefs; or loosely indicated by an outline of the function or task. These techniques have already demonstrated their applicability to a wide range of learners, subjects and levels. It is a memorable and enjoyable learning method. To gain maximum benefits from this method, the incidents selected for enactment should be as realistic as the situation allows. For Improving Role Play Method Before the role play, the teacher should brief participants about the roles they will play, give them time for preparation, confirm confidentiality of role play, and ask participants to behave naturally. †¢ Teacher should select ; brief observers about their roles. †¢ During the role play, the teacher must keep quiet, listen ; take notes, avoid cutting role play short, but give time warning if previously agreed. The teacher should be prepared for some action if participants dry up and can intervene as a last resort. †¢ After the role play, the teacher thanks participants, ask for feed back from lead participants, take comments from observers, ask other participants to comment, †¢ The teacher should use role names not those of participants, summarize, drawing out learning points, leaving the participants with positive comments and feelings. †¢CASE STUDY Primarily developed in business and law contexts, case method teaching can be productively used in liberal arts, engineering, and education. This method is basically used to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills, as well as to present students with real-life situations. The students are presented with a record set of circumstances based on actual event or an imaginary situation and they are asked, -to diagnose particular problem only. -to diagnose problem ; provide solution. -to give reasons ; implications of action after providing both problem ; solution. It is a time consuming method and sometimes the case does not actually provide real experience. It could be in-conclusive, and insufficient information can lead to inappropriate results. At the end, the students want to know the right answer by the teacher. The role of the teacher in conducting the case study should be to, -read the case and determine the key problems faced by the decision maker, -determine the data required to analyze the problems and for a synthesis into solutions, -develop, analyze, and compare alternative solutions, and recommend a course of action. For Improving Case Study Methods †¢ Cases should be brief, well-written, reflect real issues, and open to a number of conflicting responses. †¢ Students should work in group to prepare a written report and/or a formal presentation of the case. †¢BRAINSTORMING It is a loosely structured form of discussion for generating ideas without participants embroiled in unproductive analysis. It is a very useful technique for problem solving, decision making, creative thinking and team building. It develops listening skills. For Improving Brainstorming Method Ground rules for running brainstorming Methods: †¢ There should be no criticism and the wild ideas should be encouraged and recorded without evaluation. †¢ Emphasis should be placed on quantity of ideas and not the quality. †¢ There is a need of equal participation of members. †¢ It can be unfocused so teacher should know how to control discussion and facilitate issues. †¢ It works well in small group. †¢ASSIGNMENT METHOD Written assignments help in organization of knowledge, assimilation of facts and better preparation of examinations. It emphasizes on individual pupil work and the method that helps both teaching and learning processes, For Improving Assignment Method †¢ Teacher should describe the parameters of the topic of assignment. †¢ Fully explain assignments so that students know how to best prepare. When the inevitable question, â€Å"Will we be tested on this? † arises, make sure your answer includes not only a â€Å"yes† or â€Å"no,† but a â€Å"because . . . †¢ Davis (1993) suggests that â€Å"Give assignments and exams that recognize students’ diverse backgrounds and special interests. For example, a faculty member teaching a course on medical and health training offered students a variety of topics for their term papers, including one on alternative healing belief systems. A faculty member in the social sciences gave students an assignment asking them to compare female-only, male-only, and male-female work groups. † IV. RECOMENDATION †¢PARENT To evaluate teaching effectiveness different methods can be used including peer review, self-evaluation, teaching portfolios, it can also be done in home in the youngest children , to prepare for schooling. †¢STUDENTS student achievement and students’ ratings of teaching methods used by their teachers. students provide anonymous feedback at the end of each course they complete, faculty and will be used to improve the teaching and learning in the course otherwise they are unlikely to take the rating process seriously †¢TEACHERS Teachers need to educate students in effective ways of giving precise feedback that addresses specific aspects of their learning experience. Teachers need to continually assure students throughout the semester that the ratings will be used for productive changes in teaching/ learning process and that there will be no chance of retribution to the students.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Intrinsic Motivation Essay

Second Language Acquisition (SLA) is learning development in which people acquire a new language – more commonly known as â€Å"second language† in addition to their native tongue. The second language is often referred as â€Å"target language† or â€Å"L2†. In addition, second language denotes any new language learned after early childhood years. This means subsequently languages learned – i. e. third or fourth language is still referred to as second language. A number of personal and environmental factors may affect the decision to learn a second language. Examples of such factors include family influences, social groups or peers, teachers, school, age, and self-concept. An individual may pursue a study on acquiring a second language skill for various reasons and motivations. In a study of UK and European students, it has been stated that the reasons a student pursues a study a foreign language are the following: 1) to be able to develop a career advantage for opportunities in the future; 2) a student’s personal inclination to learn the language; 3) to be able to learn and appreciate to cultural differences; 4) for an enhanced comprehension of the culture where the language is used; 5) and to be able to reside in nations where the language is used. The current teacher booklet aims to help the SLA teacher increase the intrinsic motivation of SLA learners by presenting sundry topics, including attitudes and motivation in second language learning; clarifying erroneous beliefs about language learning; what the SLA teacher ought to focus on: sources of language anxiety; the learning environment as source of language anxiety; variables of self-confidence; socio-psychological issues of language anxiety and self-confidence; instructor-learner interaction and classroom procedures; and interpretation of educator beliefs on language learning. Attitudes and Motivation in Second Language Learning In the book Attitudes and motivation in second language learning, Gardner and Lambert (1972) have identified Integrative Motivation and Instrumental Motivation as the common reason for a student’s desire to study a second language. In the context of language learning, a learner may pursue the study of English such as a second language because of one’s desire to work in abroad as well as for travel purposes. The learner’s practical rationale for acquiring a second language is referred to as instrumental motivation. On the other hand, a person may pursue the study of English language in order to successfully integrate within the community where one is currently living. The learner’s purpose can be referred to as integrative motivation. Following a learner’s utilitarian purpose, the clear benefit of acquiring English as second language is to have a competitive edge in the labor market. Such skills are very valuable as businesses are increasingly becoming global. In fact, professionals who are fluent bilingual speakers have the competitive edge compared to monolingual speakers. In addition, travel and migration of people has becoming a growing trend in recent years prompting a necessity to understand and integrate within the society which one lives in. Given that there a significant number of SLA learners, it is worthwhile to examine how the teacher may be able to increase the confidence and intrinsic motivation and lessen the anxiety of the SLA learner. Clarifying Erroneous Beliefs about Language Learning Horwitz, Horwitz & Cope (1986) believe that the problem of anxiety and the accompanying erroneous beliefs about language learning, as discussed in their literature focusing on classroom anxiety, represent serious impediments to the development of second language fluency as well as to performance. In their discussion of clinical experience with anxiety as a barrier to second language development, they categorize this personality factor as that of apprehension, worry and even dread and anxious language learners often have difficulty concentrating, become forgetful, sweat, and have palpitations. Further, Chang, Horwitz, and Schallert (1999) report that there are generally two types or constructs of anxiety, which are related to second language learning in both speaking and writing. The report suggests that second language classroom anxiety refers to the anxiety felt by students in interacting with native-speaking students. It is the more general type of anxiety felt by most school students. On the other hand, second language writing anxiety refers to language-skill-specific anxiety felt by students. Chang, Horwitz, and Schallert (1999) suggest that these are two separate constructs and that anxiety levels in speaking or writing may be felt differently. Nevertheless, the report asserts that level of self-esteem is an important component for both constructs. In a research on English as Second Language, Huang (2004) reports that foreign students (i. e. Chinese) studying at North American universities have faired very well in TOEFL. While Chinese students have obtained very high marks, many still have difficulties in understanding academic lectures, taking notes, writing assignments and giving presentations. Further, this report would also illustrate that the two independent constructs reported by Chang, Horwitz, and Schallert (1999). Huang (2004) reports that the students in the study have proficiency in reading ability and grammar, and that listening and the speaking were the weakest. Moreover, the study also reports low level of confidence of foreign students in participation and interaction in classes due to this difficulty; thus, limiting their overall performance. Cummins (2000) supports that even though many have excellent English language skills in terms of social proficiency, many are still struggling with the type of cognitive academic language necessary for the success in the mainstream classroom. The Learner’s Willingness to Communicate Skehan (1989) further suggests that a learner’s willingness to communicate has also been related to anxiety. His research points toward some language learners attempting to avoid communicating in a second language due to fear of embarrassment over their current skill level in speaking the second language. Perhaps this is part of the reason why many second language learners, who study overseas, tend to remain connected to other foreign second language learners and avoid prolonged social contact with native-speaking peers. Though the reasoning behind each individual’s level of willingness to communicate will likely vary based on the number of people present, the topic of conversation and the formality of the circumstances, avoiding discussion using the second language is a common anxiety among language learners. While many studies have shown the level of anxiety of second language learners increases because of erroneous personal beliefs of the students, most of studies assert that self-confidence is an important component in overcoming of both in classroom and writing anxieties. What the SLA Teacher Ought to Focus On: Sources of Language Anxiety Furthermore, Young (1991) provides a list of potential sources of language anxiety. In her review of the literature on language anxiety, Young asserts that language anxiety can have a variety of sources – that is, anxiety can be associated with the learner’s perceptions, teacher’s beliefs, as well as the instructional practice to second language learning. She argues that language can come from the following: a. personal and interpersonal anxieties, learner beliefs about language learning, instructor beliefs about language teaching, instructor-learner actions, and language testing. Personal perceptions and beliefs can have a great effect on the progress of language learning. These perceptions have been well-documented in the studies related to age and language learning. Hyltenstam (1992) asserts that age in relation to language learning is an important factor in achieving native-like fluency for second language learners. That is, younger students tend to learn the second language faster than their mature counterparts. On the other, self-perception of more mature learners tends to hinder in the development of second language skills, which can more appropriately termed as trait anxiety. For example, adults, who are pursuing study of a second language, may have a clear mission why they are pursuing such course and far more determination to persevere than their younger counterparts. However, a number of mature students, who enter a foreign language class, were victimized by various prejudices about second language learning. â€Å"I’m too old to learn† or â€Å"I’m linguistically challenged† are common erroneous beliefs that adult learners often succumb to. Ehrman et al (2003) suggest that the feelings of uneasiness, such as late start or a belief that one needs a special predisposition for learning learning, can be attributed to the barriers created by the student’s ego as one matures. Adult learners may perceive their performance in a foreign language classroom as unnatural or ridiculous in comparison to their experience in the first language acquisition process. Therefore, these factors often contribute to the apprehension and tension felt by adult learners in the context of second language learning, more specifically in the aspect of speaking, writing, and learning. In short, adult learners suffer language anxiety more as compared to their younger counterparts. Certainly, not all adult learners become paralyzed by negative emotions the moment they step into a foreign language classroom. However, it is a common perception of educators, who have lectured to a group of adults, that some non-native speaking students may be reluctant to participate, more especially when they realize or assume that other students are more fluent. Nonetheless, it is important to emphasize that this emotion is not alien to younger learners, but in the studies it have been well-documented that with age the tension and anxiety associated with learning a new language is stronger and more difficult to overcome. The Learning Environment as Source of Language Anxiety Furthermore, the learning environment can also be a source of language anxiety. MacIntyre and Gardner (1994) would denote this as situational anxiety. Hadfield (1992) has introduced the concept of classroom dynamics to describe everything that happens in and between the participants, both the teacher and the students. Heron further elaborates on the existential anxiety of students in a classroom setting. Moreover, Heron also lists three aspects of existential anxiety in relation to classroom dynamics: 1) acceptance anxiety, 2) orientation anxiety, and 3) performance anxiety. Acceptance anxiety would relate to apprehension of being judged in a foreign class. Often times, students as well as teachers may show approval and disapproval behaviors to others. Fellow students may show impatience or mock another as a sign of their approval or disapproval to their fellow students. This often manifest as a sign of competition for teacher’s approval among students in the classroom. Teachers may also exhibit judgmental attitude in their criticisms as well as their bodily movements to their students. The teachers may open criticize or mock a student in a class. A more subtle criticism can be observed when a teacher would correct an error of a student. Whether the teacher corrects the error explicitly, by providing the correction, or implicitly, by indicating the kind of error and giving the student the opportunity for self-correction, can make a difference in the student’s self-confidence. Orientation anxiety would relate to the personal understanding of the situational contexts of the discussion or what is going on. Teacher’s role in facilitating learning is undermined by the failure to manage classroom discourse. This leads for students to at times feel of being deprived of control. In a discussion, when turn stealing overrules turn taking, such feelings can occur. The student may feel the lack of control over his role in classroom interaction when he is late to answer a general question or the question is directed to another person. More often, students would find the teacher’s unclear or unsatisfactory explanation as frustrating and leaving a feeling of no control over the language as a system. Finally, the anxiety is further instilled with domineering and controlling teachers, who leaves students feeling they have no influence over what is going on in the classroom. Lastly, performance anxiety would relate to the apprehension or feeling of isolation in a class. The feeling of isolation may also express itself as a feeling of disregarded. The feeling of being alone among one’s peers is not uncommon in highly territorial classrooms in which students never want to change their seats or switch conversation partners. Moreover, this would relate to student’s anxiety to talk using the target language with fellow students in fear of being appearing stupid and judge as well. Hence, research reports would suggest that foreign students will tend to group with fellow non-native speakers and exhibit behavioral avoidance when studying in the mainstream English classes. Variables of Self-Confidence Self-confidence is a positive image yet realistic view of one-self and the situation. A confident person is someone who trust his own abilities, have a general sense of control in their lives, and believe that, within reason, they will be able to do what they wish, plan, and expect. According to Skehan (1989), available research does not show a single clearly-defined relationship between personality traits (such as self-confidence) and second language. He further points out that a major difficulty in investigating personality variables is that of identification and measurement, pointing toward a relatively new area of potential research needing attention. However, existing literature suggests that language anxiety can be correlated with students’ negative concepts of themselves as language learners, and negative expectations for language learning. With this in consideration, self-confidence levels can be viewed not only as a personality trait with complex factors affecting high or low confidence, but also as an outcome of high anxiety levels. This assumption is of considerable interest as anxiety tends to create negative self-perceptions about language performance and can then be tied directly to an increase in negative attitudes towards second language learning and a decrease in risk-taking and sociability. In different respect, overly high levels of confidence in language learning can have similar negative effects on language learning, hindering advancement in language proficiency as over-confidence, due to self-perceptions of high degrees of performance in oral/written communication or in positive socialization, can lead a language learner to believe that he or she has learned all there is to know about a language and lose sight of mastering higher complex linguistic skill in the SL. For example, an individual who sees that his or her skill level in the second language is superior to other SL learners who struggle with the SL, he or she might make substantial mistakes in grammar or comprehension, but remain completely unaware of their errors and thus not improve in the acquisition of the second language. Horwitz (1986) brings up an interesting concept regarding self-confidence by citing that language learning is a profoundly unsettling psychological proposition because it directly threatens an individual’s self-concept and worldview. A bold statement, but it does indicate that language learning, as a whole, can be a major contributor to variable self-confidence levels based on how each individual interprets their learning in terms of culture, grammar, or any other related language learning aspect. Variable self-confidence levels in second language learners are profoundly impacted by a complex set of individualised variables that it would be difficult to label each and every possible contributor to self-confidence levels. Simply recognising self-confidence levels in SL learners as a result of language learning and of anxiety opens a variety of potential research methods to begin measuring cause and effect of variable self-confidence. Instructor-Learner Interaction and Classroom Procedures Young (1991) asserts that a learner’s beliefs about language learning can contribute to the psychological anxiety in students. Skills such as proper pronunciation, depth of vocabulary, and fluency may vary in importance for learners in relation to second language learning. Similarly, Horwitz also studied the effect of various learners’ perceptions to language learning. In fact, Horwitz reports that a number of foreign language students in his study may have unachievable personal goals and misconceptions about language learning. For example, a few respondents expressed their optimism in achieving native-like fluency in the second language in two years of study, while others expressed their belief that language learning is tantamount to learning how to translate. Clearly, these idealistic beliefs contribute to language anxiety, more evidently when their beliefs and reality clash. A very good example would be the overly optimistic goal of beginners to achieve native-like fluency in the target language in two years. Over time, the students would naturally tend to get frustrated to find the reality of their imperfect pronunciation even after a lot of practice. On the other hand, an instructor’s beliefs about language teaching can also be a source of anxiety among second language learners. The manifestations of instructor’s belief can more clearly be seen in the methodology or approach in which an instructor conducts the second language class. For example, most instructors, who employ the Grammar Translation Method to teach English, will undoubtedly argue that the most fundamental reason for learning the language is to give learners access to English literature, develop their minds through second language learning, and to build in students the kinds of grammar, reading, vocabulary, and translation skills requisite to pass any one of the variety of compulsory tests necessitated in educational institutions. These instructors often emphasize on the strict rules of grammar syntax and proper form in sentence construction. While the teacher believes that his role in class is to constantly test and correct student’s errors, some of the students might develop anxiety over their class performance. On the other hand, some instructors may choose to employ a different methodology in language teaching. Some instructors may choose to use Total Physical Response method for learners to enjoy the sessions and create a less stressful environment for the students. Practitioners argue that recreating the natural process for children first learning their native language will facilitate the learning of the second language in the same way. More importantly, it asserts that language learning method involves a substantial amount of listening and comprehension with a mixture of various physical response such as smiling, reaching, and grabbing. Thus, the aim was to lower the affective filter in order to accelerate language learning among students. Taking into account the beliefs of both learners and instructors as well as the sources of language anxieties felt by students in a classroom setting, it is also important to look into the dynamics of the learning environment. Hadfield (1992) has identified seven traits of a good classroom dynamics as shown in Table 1. Table 1: Traits of Good Classroom Dynamics 1. Student groups are cohesive and have a positive, supportive atmosphere. Group members are interested in each other and feel they have something in common. 2. The members of the group are able to compromise. They have a sense of direction as a group and are able to define their goals in group as well as individual terms. 3. Group members are not cliquey or territorial but interact happily with all members of the group. Members of the group listen to each other and take turns. 4. Individuals in the group are not competitive and do not seek individual attention at the expense of others. Members cooperate in completing tasks and are able to work together productively. 5. Group members are able to empathize with each other and understand each other’s points of view even if they do not share them. The members of the group trust each other. 6. The group has a sense of fun. 7. Group members have a positive attitude to themselves as learners, to the language and culture being studied, and to the learning experience. Interpretation of Educator Beliefs on Language Learning Many paradigms and principles in mentioned in existing literature in teacher cognition are generally by nature unobservable and researchers have defined such principles differently. Freeman defines the categories in teacher education as â€Å"knowledge, beliefs and perceptions that shape what the teachers know, and therefore what they do in their teaching. † The keywords in Freeman’s categorization would be knowledge, beliefs and perceptions. These keywords would therefore define the scope of the teacher’s competency in relation to language teaching. Ellis (2006) would further refine the three words to discuss the teacher’s biographical experience and how it contributes to their professional knowledge. Ellis (2006) proposes â€Å"knowledge, beliefs, and insights† as refinement of the Freeman’s categorization. Knowledge (cited after Woods by Ellis) would be related to facts and the â€Å"things we know†. Beliefs refers to the instructor’s â€Å"acceptance of a proposition †¦ for which there is an accepted disagreement. † Ellis further elaborates on this irony as â€Å"ESL students need explicit focus on grammar as well as communicative practice. † Lastly, insight would relate to the instructor’s â€Å"personal practical knowledge: knowledge which is experiential, embodied, and reconstructed out of the narratives of a teacher’s life†. Ellis (2006) further elaborates insight as â€Å"an understanding gained from personal experience that allows us to see how previously understood realities could be different. It illuminates something previously unseen, makes sense of something previously incomprehensible, or lends a new perspective on something taken for granted. † Conclusion Different language experiences will result to rich and diverse insights, which can be very useful to second language teachers. However, there is yet to be a methodical study of a knowledge database of the learning experiences of English second language teachers. Formal education would require and ensure teachers are equip with the knowledge about phonology, grammar syntax, bilingualism, and motivation and methodology, etc. In addition, beliefs about the theories within language learning are also formed in the process as teachers develop a technique or approach in second language teaching. More importantly, teachers gain insights from the personal experiences, particularly in teaching second language. These insights are gained from reflection and recognition the complex, interwoven, rich, and diverse nature of what teachers â€Å"know†. The contents of this teacher booklet all aim to give the SLA teacher some insight into the areas in which he exerts significant impact. If taken to heart, he will indeed be able to make a dent in language learning by lessening the anxiety of his students and increasing their self-confidence. References Chang, Y. S. , Horwitz, E. K. and Schallert, D. L. (1999). Language Anxiety: Differentiating Writing and Speaking Components. Language Learning, 49 (3), 417-446. Cummins, J. (2000). Immersion education for the millennium: What we have learned from 30 years of research on second language immersion. Retrieved on October 23, 2007 from www. iteachilearn. com/cummins/immersion2000. html Ehrman, M. E. , Leaver, B. L. & Oxford, R. L. (2003). A brief overview of individual differences in second language learning. System, 31 (3), 313-330. Ellis, E. M. (2006). 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D. & Gardner, D. (1994). How does anxiety affect second language learning? A reply to Sparks and Ganschow. The Modern Language Journal, 79 (1). Skehan, P. (1989). Individual differences in second-language learning. London: Edward Arnold Young, D. J. (1991). Creating a low-anxiety classroom environment: What does language anxiety research suggest? The Modern Language Journal, 75 (4).